Chitoglucan Clinical Evidence

Pharmacometrics
Hori Y., et al. Safety Evaluation of Excessive Intake of Tablets Containing Chitoglucan on Humans Study. 2009. 76(1/2): 25-31. 

Topic: 
Is excessive intake of Chitoglucan safe for humans?

Background:
Flammulina Velutipes is a mushroom cultivar found in East Asian cuisine. It is also known as enokitake or enoki mushroom. Chitoglucan (enokitake extract) has been shown to help reduce blood pressure as well as cholesterol and may have an effect on obesity.

Study Type:
Safety Evaluation

Study Design:
Open-Label Trial: Subjects were given 20 tablets containing 2000 mg of Chitoglucan for 4 weeks (recommended adult dose is 300-400 mg daily). Clinical and physical examinations were performed during the study and adverse events monitored.

Subjects:
24 healthy adults

Dosage:
20 tablets containing 2000 mg Chitoglucan

Results:
The study reported the following results:

  • No significant clinical changes were observed in both physical and clinical evaluations.

  • One subject complained of mild gastrointestinal symptoms, but did not pose a clinical problem.

  • No other adverse effects were reported.

Conclusion:
It is safe to consume tablets containing Chitoglucan at the dosage level of administration in this study.

Magazine of Tokyo Medical University
Hori Y., et al. Safety Evaluation of Excessive Intake of Green Tea Containing Chitoglucan Humans Study. 2009. 67(1), 52-59. 

Topic: 
Is excessive intake of Green Tea containing Chitoglucan safe for humans?

Background:
Flammulina Velutipes is a mushroom cultivar found in East Asian cuisine. It is also known as enokitake or enoki mushroom. Chitoglucan (enokitake extract) has been shown to help reduce blood pressure as well as cholesterol and may have an effect on obesity.

Study Type:
Safety Evaluation

Study Design:
Open-Label Trial: Subjects were given 350 mL green tea containing 1200 mg of Chitoglucan for 4 weeks (recommended adult dose is 300-400 mg daily). Clinical and physical examinations were performed during the study and adverse events monitored.

Subjects:
24 healthy adults

Dosage:
350 mL containing 1200 mg Chitoglucan

Results:
The study reported the following results:

  • No significant clinical changes were observed in both physical and clinical evaluations.
  • One subject complained of mild gastrointestinal symptoms, but did not pose a clinical problem.
  • No other adverse effects were reported.

Conclusion:
It is safe to consume green tea containing Chitoglucan at the dosage level and for the period of administration in this study.

Pharmacometrics 
Hori Y., et al. Clinical Effects of Sequential Treatment of Supplement Containing Chitoglucan on Decrease of Visceral Fat. 2009. 76(1/2):15-24. 

Topic: 
Does supplementation with Chitoglucan have an effect on metabolic syndrome?

Background:
Flammulina Velutipes is a mushroom cultivar found in East Asian cuisine. It is also known as enokitake or enoki mushroom. Chitoglucan (enokitake extract) has been shown to help reduce blood pressure as well as cholesterol and may have an effect on obesity.

Study Type:
Human Intervention Trial

Study Design:
Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial: Subjects were given either 4 tablets containing Chitoglucan (test group) or a placebo, for 12 weeks. Metabolic parameters were measured throughout intake period.

Subjects:
78 healthy obese adults

Dosage:
400 mg Chitoglucan

Results:
Chitoglucan supplementation had the following outcomes compared with placebo:

  • Significantly lowered body weight, BMI, visceral fat area, and body fat weight.
  • A reduction in fat, but not muscle.
  • Neither clinical trouble nor adverse events were observed.

Conclusion:
Consecutive intakes of Chitoglucan improved metabolism and decreased visceral fat on obese subjects.

Pharmacometrics 
Hori Y., et al. Clinical Effects of Sequential Treatment of Green Tea Containing Chitoglucan on Decrease of Visceral Fat. 2008. 74(5/6):121-129. 

Topic: 
Does supplementation with green tea containing Chitoglucan have an effect on metabolic syndrome?

Background:
Flammulina Velutipes is a mushroom cultivar found in East Asian cuisine. It is also known as enokitake or enoki mushroom. Chitoglucan (enokitake extract) has been shown to help reduce blood pressure as well as cholesterol and may have an effect on obesity.

Study Type:
Human Intervention Trial

Study Design:
Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial: Subjects were given either 1 bottle (350 mL) of green tea containing Chitoglucan (test group) or a placebo drink, for 12 weeks. Metabolic parameters were measured throughout intake period.

Subjects:
76 healthy obese adults

Dosage:
400 mg Chitoglucan

Results:
Green tea containing Chitoglucan supplementation had the following outcomes compared with placebo:

  • Significantly lowered body weight, BMI, visceral fat area, and body fat weight.
  • A reduction in fat, but not muscle.
  • Neither clinical trouble nor adverse events were observed.

Conclusion:
Consecutive intakes of Chitoglucan improved metabolism and decreased visceral fat on obese subjects.

Pharmacometrics 
Hori Y., et al. Clinical Effects of Chitoglucan on Metabolic Syndrome. 2007. 73(3/4):245-253. 

Topic: 
Does supplementation with Chitoglucan have an effect on metabolic syndrome?

Background:
Chitoglucan is derived from edible mushrooms such as Flammulina Velutipes (enoki), maitake, and shiitake, and it consists of beta-glucan, vegetable Chitosan, and complex polysaccharides. Chitin (poly- N-acetyl glucosamine) is a ubiquitous biopolymer that occurs naturally as a major component in the skeletal or exoskeletal structures of lower animals and is also present in the vast majority of fungi as the principal fibrillar polymer of the cell wall. Chitoglucan is obtained by refinement after deacetylation of chitin. Previous research has reported that Chitoglucan inhibits fat absorption in the intestine due to its surface activational effects and inhibits elevation of serum cholesterol. Consequently, Chitoglucan is expected to have preventive effects for obesity and the lifestyle-related diseases.

Study Type:
Human Intervention Trial

Study Design:
Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial: Subjects were divided into four groups: 1) control group; 2) 200 mg Chitoglucan intake group; 3) 400 mg Chitoglucan intake group; 4) 800 mg Chitoglucan intake group. Intake period was 8 weeks. Metabolic parameters were measured throughout intake period.

Subjects:
46 healthy obese adults

Dosage:
200, 400, and 800 mg Chitoglucan

Results:
Chitoglucan supplementation had the following outcomes compared with placebo:

  • All Chitoglucan groups had significantly lowered body weight, BMI, waist circumference visceral fat rate, and body fat rate.
  • A reduction in fat, but not muscle.
  • Neither clinical trouble nor adverse events were observed.

Conclusion:
It was clear that the Chitoglucan is safe and the effect of weight reduction is high. Moreover, the durability of effect was also found to be high. It was assumed that this health food was effective for prevention of metabolic syndrome and lifestyle-related diseases such as obesity, hyperlipidemia, arteriosclerosis, diabetes, high blood pressure, constipation, etc. Moreover, the best dose suggested was that of 400 mg per day. 

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Food Processing and Ingredients 
Kataumi S., et al. Body Fat-Reduction Effect of Chitoglucan. 2007. 42(3):75-78. 

Topic: 
Does supplementation with Chitoglucan have an effect on body fat and weight?

Background:
Chitoglucan is derived by deacetylating the residue of the fruit body and hot water extract of edible fungi such as enokitake, shiitake, and maitake mushrooms. It also contains beta-glucans, phytogenic Chitosan, and conjugated polysaccharides. In previous research, it has been suggested that ingestion of Chitoglucan decreased both body weight and body fat. Additionally, the decomposition of accumulated body fat was enhanced.

Study Type:
Human Intervention Trial

Study Design:
Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial: Subjects were divided into two groups: 1) control group; 2) Chitoglucan group. Chitoglucan group took 150 mg of Chitoglucan twice a day for 8 weeks and control group took a placebo in the same manner. At start, 4 and 8 weeks after administration, blood test, blood pressure, BMI, body fat percentage, amount of body fat, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were measured.

Subjects:
45 healthy obese adults

Dosage:
300 mg Chitoglucan (150 mg 20 minutes before lunch and dinner)

Results:
Chitoglucan supplementation had the following outcomes compared with placebo:

  • A significant decrease in body fat without having a great impact on lean body mass.
  • A significant decrease in BMI in 4th week and the 8th week.
  • A significant decrease in body fat percentage, amount of body fat, waist circumference and waist and hip ratio in the 8th week.

Conclusion:
It is expected that intake of Chitoglucan can be useful in the prevention of obesity, which has become a social problem, and in the prevention of lifestylerelated diseases. Moreover, no great change was observed in the result of blood samples collected and in interviews about the patient's condition, and it was confirmed that the intake of Chitoglucan was safe.

Academy Journal Food Function 
Kataumi S., et al. Effect of "Chitoglucan" Intake on Decrease of Body Fat. 2007. 3(2): 25-32. 

Topic: 
Does supplementation with Chitoglucan have an effect on body fat and weight?

Background:
Chitoglucan is derived from edible mushrooms such as Flammulina velutipes (enoki), maitake, and shiitake and it consists of beta-glucans, vegetable Chitosan, and complex polysaccharides. The principal crude fiber in mushroom is chitin, the polymer of N-acetyl D-glucosamine. The Chitoglucan used in this research is obtained by performing deacetylation on the fruit body of edible mushrooms, converting chitin to Chitosan. The extract also contains the protein and fat that exist as complex polysaccharides combined with the sugar chain. A lot of research has been done on the functionality of these elements and their blood-glucose-lowering effect, hypotensive effect, immune-strength-improvement effect, and the tumor-inhibitory effect. Moreover, in recent research, it has been clarified that from a dietary viewpoint, mushroom components have excellent functionality and body fat decreasing effects. In previous research, it has been reported that Chitoglucan has various effects such as decreasing serum-neutral fat and cholesterol, and prevention of an increase in body weight and fat.

Study Type:
Human Intervention Trial

Study Design:
Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial: Subjects were divided into two groups: 1) control group; 2) Chitoglucan group. The Chitoglucan group took 150 mg of Chitoglucan twice a day for 8 weeks and the control group took a placebo in the same manner. At start, 4 and 8 weeks after administration, blood tests, body weight, and cardiovascular system were measured. In addition, at start and 8 weeks after, a CT scan measured visceral fat area in an abdominal slice.

Subjects:
42 healthy obese adults with BMI over 24

Dosage:
300 mg Chitoglucan (150 mg 20 minutes before lunch and dinner)

Results:
Chitoglucan supplementation had the following outcomes compared with placebo:

  • A statistical decrease in body weight and visceral fat area.
  • A statistical decrease in LDL and total cholesterol.
  • There were no significant differences on the results of physician inquiry between the two groups.

Conclusion:
With the daily intake of Chitoglucan in the diet, obesity prevention and improvement in the lifestylerelated disease is expected. Major changes were not observed in the results of blood samples and in the medical interview, and it was confirmed that Chitoglucan was safe.

Food Function 
Kasagi T., et al. Effect of "Chitoglucan" Intake on Student Girls' Body Weight and Body Fat. 2006. 2(2):61-66. 

Topic: 
Does supplementation with Chitoglucan have an effect on body fat and weight in female students?

Background:

Chitoglucan is derived by deacetylating the residue of the fruit body and hot water extract of edible fungi such as enokitake, shiitake, and maitake mushrooms. It also contains beta-glucans, phytogenic Chitosan, and conjugated polysaccharides. In previous research, it has been suggested that the ingestion of Chitoglucan decreased both body weight and body fat. Additionally, the decomposition of accumulated body fat was enhanced.

Study Type:
Human Intervention Trial

Study Design:
Open Label Trial: Subjects took Chitoglucan twice a day for 8 weeks. Body weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and the amount of body fat were measured and compared with pretreatment values.

Subjects:
51 female volunteers with body fat percentages that exceeded standard

Dosage:
300 mg/day Chitoglucan (150 mg 20 minutes before lunch and dinner)

Results:
Chitoglucan supplementation had the following outcomes:

  • A statistical decrease in body weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and the amount of body fat compared with pretreatment values.
  • In addition, the decrease in muscle and bone mass was scarcely noticeable.

Conclusion:
Chitoglucan resulted in decreases in body weight, body fat percentage, and BMI in female students.

Food Style 21 
Okazaki H. Examination of Weight Loss Effect of Chitoglucan Including Clinical Trial in Taiwan. 2006.10(6):85-90. 

Topic: 
Does supplementation with Chitoglucan have an effect on body fat and weight in adult males?

Background:
Chitoglucan is derived by deacetylating the residue of the fruit body and hot water extract of edible fungi such as enokitake, shiitake, and maitake mushrooms. It also contains beta-glucans, phytogenic Chitosan, and conjugated polysaccharides. In previous research, it has been suggested that the ingestion of Chitoglucan decreased both body weight and body fat. Additionally, the decomposition of accumulated body fat was enhanced.

Study Type:
Human Intervention Trial

Study Design:
Open Label Trial: Subjects took Chitoglucan twice a day with lunch and supper for 8 weeks. Body weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and the amount of body fat were measured and compared with pretreatment values.

Subjects:
13 adult males

Dosage:
300 mg Chitoglucan (150 mg 20 minutes before lunch and dinner)

Results:
Chitoglucan supplementation had the following outcomes:

  • A significant decrease in body weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and the amount of body fat compared with pretreatment values.

Conclusion:
Chitoglucan is expected to be useful in the prevention of obesity, which has become a social problem, and in the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases.

Food Style 21 
Nakamura Y., et al. Effects of Chitoglucan on Weight and Body Fat of Adult Females. 2006. 10(3):29-33. 

Topic: 
Does supplementation with Chitoglucan have an effect on body fat and weight in adult females?

Background:
Chitoglucan is derived by deacetylating the residue of the fruit body and hot water extract of edible fungi such as enokitake, shiitake, and maitake mushrooms. It also contains beta-glucans, phytogenic Chitosan, and conjugated polysaccharides. In previous research, it has been suggested that the ingestion of Chitoglucan decreased both body weight and body fat. Additionally, the decomposition of accumulated body fat was enhanced.

Study Type:
Human Intervention Trial

Study Design:
Open Label Trial: Subjects took Chitoglucan twice a day with lunch and supper for 8 weeks. Body weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and the amount of body fat were measured and compared with pretreatment values.

Subjects:
11 adult females

Dosage:
300 mg Chitoglucan (150 mg 20 minutes before lunch and dinner)

Results:

Chitoglucan supplementation had the following outcomes:

  • On average, body weight, BMI, body fat ratio, and the amount of body fat decreased significantly
  • The decrease was "remarkable" in the subject with the highest body fat rate.

Conclusion:
Consuming mushroom-chitosan daily is considered a healthy dieting method.

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Food Processing and Ingredients 
Nakamura Y., et al. Effect of Chitoglucan on Body Weight and Body Fat of High School Girls. 2006. 41(1):62-64. 

Topic: 
Does supplementation with Chitoglucan have an effect on body fat and weight in high school girls?

Background:
Chitoglucan is derived by deacetylating the residue of the fruit body and hot water extract of edible fungi such as enokitake, shiitake, and maitake mushrooms. It also contains beta-glucans, phytogenic Chitosan, and conjugated polysaccharides. In previous research, it has been suggested that the ingestion of Chitoglucan decreased both body weight and body fat. Additionally, the decomposition of accumulated body fat was enhanced.

Study Type:
Human Intervention Trial

Study Design:
Open Label Trial: Subjects took Chitoglucan twice a day with lunch and supper for 8 weeks. Body weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and the amount of body fat were measured and compared with pretreatment values.

Subjects:
17 high school girls

Dosage:
300 mg Chitoglucan (150 mg 20 minutes before lunch and dinner)

Results:
Chitoglucan supplementation had the following outcomes:

  • On average, body weight, BMI, body fat ratio, and the amount of body fat decreased significantly
  • The decrease was "remarkable" in the subject with the highest body fat rate.

Conclusion:
Chitoglucan had positive results for decreasing body weight, BMI, body fat rate, and the amount of body fat. 

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Food Function 
Kataumi S., et al. The Effect of Anti-Obesity of New Functional Food Material Chitoglucan. 2006. 2(1): 68-73. 

Topic: 
Does supplementation with Chitoglucan have an effect on body fat and weight, high cholesterol, triglycerides, blood glucose levels and blood pressure?

Background:

Chitoglucan is derived by deacetylating the residue of the fruit body and hot water extract of edible fungi such as enokitake, shiitake, and maitake mushrooms. It also contains beta-glucans, phytogenic Chitosan, and conjugated polysaccharides. In previous research, it has been suggested that ingesting Chitoglucan decreased both body weight and body fat. Additionally, the decomposition of accumulated body fat was enhanced. This study also investigates whether Chitoglucan has an effect on diseases related to obesity, such as hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and hypertension.

Study Type:

Human Intervention Trial

Study Design:

Open Label Trial: Subjects took Chitoglucan for 2 months. Body weight, BMI, body fat ratio, and the amount of body fat were measured and compared with pretreatment values. Cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, and blood glucose levels were also measured before and after treatment.

Subjects:

24 volunteers with BMI greater than 22 and cholesterol greater than 200 mg/dL or triglycerides greater than 120 mg/dL or glucose value greater than 110 mg/dL or blood pressure greater than 120 mm Hg

Dosage:

300 mg Chitoglucan (150 mg 20 minutes before lunch and dinner)

Results:

Chitoglucan supplementation had the following outcomes:

  • A significant decrease in body weight, BMI, and body fat ratio.
  • Cholesterol, triglycerides, blood glucose value, blood pressure and atherogenic index decreased in volunteers who had more than minimum values described above.
  • No adverse effects were observed.

Conclusion:

"Chitoglucan has been recognized as a very effective and safe raw material for anti-obesity supplements." 

Food Style 21 
Okazaki H., et al. Suppression of Fat Absorption by Chitoglucan. 2005. 9(2):28-30. 

Topic: 
Does supplementation with Chitoglucan have an effect on body weight, indices of diabetes, triglycerides, and total cholesterol?

Background:

Weight loss is likely to fail due to the extreme effort of excessive dietary control and exercise. Since body weight will increase if the usual number of calories is ingested, calorie intake must be controlled. However, it is very difficult to suppress our appetite to decrease calorie intake. The diet regimen using Chitoglucan has been shown to improve weight loss without excessive effort (based on the usual diet and level of exercise), via the suppression of lipid absorption. Lipids have the highest caloric value among food constituents, and because of its coating and conjugating action effects, Chitoglucan consequently prevents the excessive accumulation of body fat.

Study Type:

Human Intervention Trial

Study Design:

Open Label Trial: Subject took Chitoglucan for 3 months. Body weight, BMI, blood glucose levels and hemoglobin A1c levels, triglycerides, and total cholesterol were measured and compared with pretreatment values.

Subjects:

One 54-year-old woman with diabetes and a BMI of 29.5

Dosage:

300 mg Chitoglucan (150 mg 20 at lunch and dinner)

Results:

Chitoglucan supplementation resulted in:

  • Reduced body weight (average 1.8 kg/month).
  • Indices of diabetes such as blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels were almost normalized.
  • Improvement of total cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

Conclusion:

"We conclude that Chitoglucan actually suppressed fat absorption from the intestinal tract."