Champex® Clinical Evidence


Inquiry into a Treatment Suitable for Elderly People.
Yamamoto S, Kawanishi Y, Yoshiko A, Naoko I, Kumazawa Y. 4th National Research Meeting of Elderly Patients-Hospitals for Intensive Care, October 18-19, 1996. 

Topic: 
What devices could we used to alleviate the bad odor from feces in the elderly?

Background:

In a severe dementia ward where coprophilia and defecation occur frequently among its patients, stool odor is found to be strong and create discomfort for caretakers during episodes of incontinence and diaper replacement. Although efforts are made to alleviate stool odor by using ventilation, air fresheners, and deodorants, there are problems with the ventilation equipment and the major issues are discomfort of the patient and distress of the caretaker. It is known that certain healthy foods can help eliminate the stool odor. Furthermore, among the elderly requiring nursing, constipation is more frequently observed. A study was conducted to understand the extent to which stool odor can be alleviated by consuming a healthy deodorizing food. Moreover, effects of consumption by patients and caretakers were also studied.

Study Type:

Human Clinical Intervention trial

Study Design:

The issues causing staff discomfort during work are studied by using a questionnaire. 33 subjects are treated with the deodorizing healthy food for 1 month, which is given 3 times per day at each meal. The questionnaire is administered to the staff before and after the intake of healthy food and the extent of bad odor is compared.

Subjects:

33 patients (average age 77) in a severe dementia ward requiring assistance for excretion.

Dosage:

3 pieces of healthy deodorizing food per day for one month.

Results:

It is understood that the staff experiences a feeling of discomfort toward the bad odor more than a feeling of uncleanliness toward stools. Moreover, results showed that consuming the healthy food has a deodorizing effect, which resulted in 75% of the staff reporting that providing assistance at the time of excretion became easy.

Conclusion:

Consumption of certain bacteria-inhibiting food can alleviate stool odor to a large extent and facilitate assistance with excretion. 


21st Japanese Food Society for Microbiology
Atsushi T. The Effect of Champignon Extract Toward Intestinal Flora and Putrid Matter. 

Topic: 
What effect does champignon extract have on intestinal flora and putrid matter?

Background:

Besides their effects on nutrition and the sensory faculty, it has been found that functional foods have an effect on the regulation of the body as well. Functional foods, which have become a topic of discussion lately, show three specific functions. Some foods provide bodily defense, some aid in the prevention of disease, and some regulate bodily rhythm and control the effects of aging. Functional foods are divided into three food groups, such as probiotics, prebiotics, and biogenic food components. Champignon extract is a watery extract from mushrooms (Agaricus, bisporus), and it has the influential effects of both prebiotics and biogenics. This product has been used in liquid dietary foods and beverages, candies, jellies, and therapeutic foods. By having humans ingest Champignon extract, we were able to examine the decay of the product and its effects on intestinal flora.

Study Type:

Placebo-Controlled Study

Study Design:

Workers and 9 residents from a nursing home were divided into three groups: a control group that took a powdered placebo food, another group that ingested 1 packet/day (standard dosage) of powdered food containing champignon extract as well as another group that ingested 3 packets/day (3 times standard dosage) of powdered food with champignon extract. The respective stool samples were taken during the 1st and 2nd week of intake. Intestinal flora were measured by the Mitsuoka method, ammonia and sulfide were measured by the Terada method, indole and phenol were measured by the Yoshihara method, short-chain fatty acids were measured by the Hara et al. method, and pH and moisture were measured by the conventional method.

Subjects:

Workers and 9 residents from a nursing home for the aged in Akita Prefecture volunteered for this study. Volunteers ranged from 40 to 89 years old.

Dosage:

Champignon extract, which was used in the test, is a powdered food that contains 500 mg of champignon extract and 500 mg of glucose. For the control, powdered placebo food was used that contained 500 mg of dextrin, caramel and glucose.

Results:

“Bifidobacteria in the intestinal flora had significantly increased in the 2nd week of intake at the standard dosage of champignon extract. At 3 times the normal dosage, there was a trend toward increase from the 1st week of intake, and it had significantly increased in the 2nd week. Lecithinase-positive Clostridium, coliform bacteria, and Staphylococcus showed a decreasing trend at the standard dosage as well as at 3 times the standard dosage from the 2nd week of intake. There were almost no variations seen in any other bacteria groups. In short-chain fatty acids, at standard dosage in case of standard quantity, total fatty acid amount, acetic acid, and propionic acid had significantly increased in the 2nd week of intake. At 3 times the dosage, the total amount of fatty acids had significantly increased in the 1st and 2nd week of intake, and acetic acid and propionic acid had significantly increased in the 2nd week of intake. Considering putrid products, ammonia had significantly decreased in the 1st and 2nd week of intake at the standard dosage and in the 2nd week of intake at 3 times the standard dosage. Sulfide has significantly decreased in the 2nd week of intake at standard dosage, and in weeks 1 and 2 at 3 times the dosage. Phenol, cresol, and indole had significantly decreased in the 2nd week of intake at standard dosage. At 3 times the dosage, indole had significantly decreased in weeks 1 and 2 of intake, and phenol, cresol, and skatole had significantly decreased in week 2 of intake. There was a significant decrease in pH in the 2nd week of intake at standard dosage and at 3 times the dosage. There was almost no variation seen in the moisture content.” 

Conclusion:

From the above, it has been shown that champignon extract has an effect on the improvement of environment and has a deodorizing effect on the stools depending on composition of intestinal flora and metabolic activity. 


Effects of champignon extract on the progression of chronic renal failure.
Shiigai T, Maeda M, Okado S, Ishida A. 

Topic: 
How does the implementation of a low-protein diet therapy control the progress of renal failure?

Background:

Earlier, it was thought that enteric bacteria are functional in nitrogen decomposition in patients with uremia. 1~3 However, from the results of administering antibiotics to patients with uremia, amino acid composition from the nitrogen of urea origin is negative, and for the bacteria in the intestine, there is a possibility that it is unfavorable to living organisms due to catabolic acceleration, production of uremic nitrogen. 4 Champignon extract (manufactured by Ricom Co. Ltd.) is an extract of “Tsukuritake” (Agaricus bisporus) and has been used in homes for the elderly as a food that reduces the bad odor of bowel movement depending on the dosage.5~7 As a mechanism that brings about the reduction of bad odor of feces, champignon extract may reduce the amount of variety of amine production.8 Lactulose 9, 10 and AST-12011~13 function in the intestines as a material that improves uremia or is expected to control the progress of renal dysfunction. It is thought that indole adsorption in the intestines due to AST-120 controls the progress of chronic renal failure. There is a possibility that the strong deodorizing effect of this extract also controls the progress of chronic renal failure by reducing the production of a variety of amines. This time, 2~4 g of this extract (BX50FPD) was administered once daily in 16 cases with progressing chronic renal failure while implementing low-protein-diet therapy in 16 cases, and the effect on progress rate of renal failure was observed.

Study Type:

Human Intervention Trial

Study Design:

Targets were 16 cases with progressive renal failure (12 cases had chronic glomerulonephritis, 2 cases had polycystic kidney disease and the last two had interstitial nephritis). A low protein diet therapy was implemented in these groups, in which a reduced protein diet of 0.6 g~0.7 g/day was considered per standard weight for patients with Ccr 15.1~70ml/ min, as well as a reduced protein diet of 0.4g~0.5g/ day was considered per standard weight with Ccr less than 15mL/min. The patients were directed to restrict salt intake to less than 7 g/day, phosphorous intake restricted to less than 800 mg/day, and appropriate energy intake corresponding to age and amount of exercise was implemented. Champignon extract was administered for an average of 9.8 months. The comparison between effective group and noneffective group done by t-test and chi-square test.

Subjects:

16 cases ages 21~77 (average 50.6 ± 14.2 years) with pre-dialysis CRF who were actively on a lowprotein diet and whose blood pressure was being regulated

Dosage:

2 or 4g of champignon extract was administered.

Results:

Out of a total of 16 patients, there were 8 in which a decrease in Ccr indicated a significant decline in the rate of progression of CRF. The remaining 8 showed no significant difference in rate of decline after taking the extract. There were no significant changes seen in the average blood pressure, rate of protein absorption and levels of protein being excreted in the urine.There also were no significant differences between the two groups in age, sex, primary disease, amount of extract administered, length of trial period, Ccr, ΔCcr prior to commencing the trial, average blood pressure, rate of protein absorption, levels of protein in the urine, or types of antihypertensive drugs being administered. 

Conclusion:

8 of the patients (50%) showed a significant decrease in the rate of renal failure. There were no changes in protein intake, blood pressure, levels of protein being excreted in the urine or medication from the beginning to the end of the trial. 

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13th Conference Summary - Japanese Stoma Rehabilitation.
Shungo E, Kenji O, Hiroyuki K, Naoki T. Effect of deodorizing functional food “Shu Clean” (a product containing champignon extract) on ostomates. 

Topic: 
What effect does the deodorizing functional food, “Shu Clean” (product containing champignon extract), have on ostomates?

Background:

There is still insufficient odor control for ostomates. There are many cases where this is causing great stress. Therefore, a deodorizing functional food, “Shu Clean,” was developed that has effective ingredients from the fruiting body of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus. In this study, this food was given to ostomates and examination by survey questionnaire was done to understand the effect on stool odor, stools, gastrointestinal symptoms and stool gas, blood gas, and any side effects.

Study Type:

Human Clinical Intervention Trial

Study Design:

A survey was conducted to analyze: 1) stool odor, stool, gastrointestinal symptoms at the start of use, every day for the next 7 days, after 10 days, after 20 days, at end of use, 7 days after the end; 2) ammonia level and methyl mercaptan level in stools (measured with a Kitagawa gas detector tube) at the start of use, after 10 days, after 20 days, at the end of use, 7 days after the end; and 3) any side effects. Furthermore, ammonia level in blood at the start of use and at the end was measured.

Subjects:

The targets were patients who had undergone an operation for rectal cancer. There were 9 people with stoma in outpatient care.

Dosage:

5 tablets after dinner every day for 30 consecutive days.

Results:

For stool odor, 7 from 9 cases replied that at the end of use after 30 days, their stool was “Not stinking much or almost not stinking.” There was a 78% deodorizing effect. Furthermore, this effect continued until 7 days after the end of use. The period for effect manifestation was 7~10 days in almost all cases. In addition to this, a steady effect was not seen on stools and gastrointestinal symptoms. There were many cases where ammonia level and methyl mercaptan level in stools could not be detected. In 1 case, it was at the start of use; every 20 ppm, 10 ppm, after 10 days; every 10 ppm, 10 ppm, since then, it could not be detected. There were almost no noticeable side effects. In 6 cases as an average value, the ammonia level in the blood had decreased from 46 μg/dl at the time of start of use to 28 μg/dl at the time of end of use. 

Conclusion:

There are no side effects with the use of this food and it is useful for odor control in ostomates. 


Food Processing and Ingredients
Tadao, H. Development and Utilization of Bio-M (Champignon Extract). 1995, 30(1). 

Topic: 
What is the effect of Champignon Extract on elderly inpatients’ stool?

Background:

“It is believed that the mechanism of smell generation is related to eating habits. Some of the nutritional elements of food that we eat every day are decomposed by intestinal bacterial and intestinal enzymes; some of these products of decomposition have harmful and strong, offensive odor. If these decomposition products are generated in large quantity, then they trigger carcinogenesis and hardening of the arteries, liver damage and contribute to the aging of cells. These harmful decomposition products are absorbed by the intestinal wall, then they enter the bloodstream. They are discharged as expiratory air (exhaled air) from the alveoli and are vented as sweat, thus becoming mouth and body odors. as a result of years of research we found that the Champignon mushroom extract indicated noticeable physiological activity and deodorizing effect. The commercialized form of Chamignon extract is named Bio-M.”

Study Type:

Human Clinical Intervention Trial

Study Design:

2g of concentrated powder of Bio-M was administered once daily to each subject with the lunch meal, and tests and doctor’s questions were done every 10 days following the start of administration. Stool gas, which is the main substance of stool odor, was quantitatively measured using a Kitagawa gas detector tube.

Subjects:

6 elderly inpatients

Dosage:

2g of Bio-M powder daily for 30 days

Results:

In a sensory test just before the start of administration of Bio-M, stool was mostly muddy and loose, and odor was evaluated as strong. In regards to odor concentration in the hospital room before administration of Bio-M, among the test subjects, excluding 1 person, since 5 patients were on prolonged bed rest, a specific odor was generated in the room and did not dissipate, even though the room was sufficiently ventilated during episodes of changing diapers or using the portable toilets. According to a sensory test after the start of administration of Bio- M, signs of improvement in stool were seen after 10 days, improvement in stool as well as stool odor progressed after 20 days, and stool odor and stool were significantly improved after 30 days. Four of 6 test subjects expressed feelings of hunger, and gastrointestinal condition was good. In 2 of the 6 patients, there was no special change and thus no problem was noticed. These results not only show that Bio-M improved the problem of stool odor and stool condition, but also indicated improvement in the balance of intestinal flora. 

Conclusion:

Administering Bio-M, as confirmed in this clinical test, is shown to reduce stool odors objectively (instrument analysis) and perceptually (sensory test), so its usage is highly desirable in daily clinical application from the viewpoint of reducing unpleasant smells and cleaning the intestinal environment. 


Deodorization and Detoxification.
Tadao, H., Deodorizing Effect of Champex in Intestines and its Physiological Effect. 1997, Food Style 21, 1(5). 

Topic: 
Does Champex have a deodorizing effect in the intestines and detoxifcation effect in the blood of the elderly?

Background:

“The food we ingest is decomposed during digestion in the body in the stomach and small intestine, and it is absorbed inside the body as nutrients. The food particles remaining after absorption of nutrients are sent from the small to the large intestine. These particles enter the large intestine in liquid form, consisting of undigested nutrients and water. When these remaining food particles enter the large intestine, their water contents are absorbed. The characteristics of the feces are determined at this stage, however, very few bacterial groups are baptized in the process, and in the small intestine and intestinal pythogeneous product is generated.”

Study Type:

Human and Animal Intervention Trial

Study Design:

Three studies were reported. In the first case, Champex (BX50FPD) was administered to 14 elderly patients hospitalized for different conditions. Fecal matter and blood samples were collected before and after the administration. The toxin profile of the fecal matter, including ammonia, amine, methyl mercaptan, and hydrogen sulfide, and blood ammonia level were analyzed. The smell of the fecal matter was also measured by sensory method; In the second case, rabbits were divided in the study group and the control group. The study group was orally given a combination of tryptophan and Champex, the control group was give only the tryptophan. The decomposition of the tryptophan in the animals’ blood serum was measured by HPLC; In the third case, three human subjects with chronic renal failure were given Champex as part of a low protein dietary treatment, blood creatinine level before and after the administration was measured.

Subjects:

14 hospitalized elderly patients, aged 57-87; Rabbits; Three human Subjects with chronic renal failure, aged 24, 40 and 67.

Dosage:

In the 1st case, 1g of Champex; In the 2nd case, 0.5g/kg body weight; In the 3rd case, 1g and 2g were given for 1 day.

Results:

“In the 1st case, the average value of fecal odor component before administration of champignon extract was as follows: 70ppm in ammonia, 60ppm in methyl mercaptan, 10ppm in amine, 12ppm in hydrogen sulfide. A remarkable decreasing tendency was indicated after 10 and 20 days of administering champignon extract. After 30 days, the result was as follows: the average value became 5ppm after 90% or more decrease in ammonia and methyl mercaptan, 5ppm after 60% or more decrease in amine, and 5ppm after 58% or more decrease in hydrogen sulfide. On the other hand, in the test for sense of smell, fecal odor, which was strong before starting the administration of champignon extract, undoubtedly weakened after 10, 20, and 30 days of administration. Weight loss following nursing care has also been observed. In the 2nd case, the study group subjects were observed after 6 hours and after 9 hours, and indoleacetic acid was not detected at all after 12 hours. The champignon extract controlled the generation of serum indoleacetic acid after 3 hours of administration. In the 3rd case, patient 1, after using g of Champex for 1 day, the serum creatinine value tends to decrease from 1.95 mg/dl down to 1.69mg/dl, 4.5 months after usage; patient 2, Before using the champignon extract serum creatinine value remained at 6.2–~6.7mg/dl for 5 months, but after using 2g of Champex for 1 day, a remarkable improvement tendency of serum creatinine value was seen with the numerical value tends to rise again; for patient 3, 2g of Champex is used for 1 day when the serum creatinine value is 3.66mg/dl, the value of creatinine shows a tendency to decrease Six months after using champignon extract serum creatinine value decreased to 3.5mg/dl.” 

Conclusion:

“Unpleasant smells such as mouth odor (breathing odor) and body odor, along with chemical substances such as ammonia in blood, which causes hyperammonemia, waste matters such as creatinine and nitrogen, which are the main causes of progressive of renal failure, amine, which is a carcinogenic substance, indole, which is a fecal odor element, mercaptan, and hydrogen sulfide, not only produce an unpleasant feeling but also are indicated as causes for liver and kidney disorders. In this context, taking champignon extract daily as light food shows an improvement in the reduction of decomposition products in the body, starting with intestinal ammonia. Additionally, a large number of other fecal components in the intestines are deodorized. As a result, champignon extract is not just effective at remarkably lowering concentration of these components, helping prevent mouth and body odors, but it also greatly contributes to the physical condition necessary to live a healthy life.” 


JJPEN
Katoh M. Trial to reduce odor in a sick ward - Examination using a deodorizing ingredient. Vol. 21 No. 3 1999. 

Topic: 
Can a patient’s environment be improved using a deodorant functional ingredient?

Background:

The people who take part in medical treatment always have to keep in mind the problem of maintenance or beautification of the patient’s environment. However, the more common occurrence is that, in attending to the high demands of patient care, sometimes these environmental concerns are neglected. In this study, as a part of environment maintenance we focused on bad odor. The main points of focus were that users of portable toilets have to eat in the same environment where waste is excreted. As a concrete policy to reduce the bad odor, studies have looked at early withdrawal of waste material, hard food articles that cause digestion problems or identification of the foods that cause bad odor, and usage of deodorizing agents. However, over several years, several foods have been found to have a deodorizing function, one of which was the champignon mushroom extract, which was tested for its deodorizing effect. This trial was undertaken not to disrupt the working conditions of this hospital, but to put forward the points that can be implemented.

Study Type:

Human clinical intervention trial

Study Design:

Observation and test item. (1) General test, (2) Clinical test: a. Stool odor sensory test, b. Concentration of malodorous substance produced in stool, c. Nutritional assessment

Subjects:

10 cases ages 42−94 (average 70.2 years). Underlying diseases with 4 cases of cerebral infarction, 2 cases of multiple cerebral infarction, 3 cases of cerebral hemorrhage, and 1 case of hypoxic encephalopathy. There was only 1 case of cerebral infarction in a female; all other cases were of males.

Dosage:

Daily intake of 750-1,250kcal, 600-900ml/hr of champignon extract containing liquid food product was administered to patients.

Results:

(1) Stool odor sensory test - the average value of the sample shows a decreasing trend over time. (2) Amine concentration - the average value of the sample shows a decreasing trend over time. (3) Ammonia and methyl mercaptan - measurement value, significant value, and decreasing trend were not observed in ammonia and methyl mercaptan.

Conclusion:

It has been suggested that champignon extract reduces the effect of stool odor as gauged by the human sense of smell. While administering the champignon extract, the amine concentration in the stool was significantly decreased. The study suggests that the deodorizing effect can be further improved by combining deodorizing functional foods with the liquid food Meibaransu C. Variations such as highprotein foods call for further study. 


Japan Food Science.
Ruriko1 I, Hisahito1 S, Taketo T, Misao H, Shomei W, Tomoko I, Kazumasa I, Atsushi K, Mieko H, Kunihiko I Solution for “Bowel Movement” problems at health care facility for the elderly by incorporating “Champignon Extract” 

Topic: 
Is champignon extract an effective remedy for bowel movement problems of the elderly?

Background:
Assuming that people above age 60 years constitute 30% of the population, Japan is facing a “superaging society,” and further development in health care facilities for the elderly is expected. One of the serious problems for these facilities is quality of life (satisfaction) in relation to the bowel movement problems of elderly people. Jelly sweets containing champignon mushroom extract were given to elderly people, and its effects were compared with the patient’s condition before jelly sweets intake. Patients who took the sweets containing champignon extract showed a significant improvement in stool odor and stool color, and an improvement in quality of life (satisfaction) was expressed. More specifically, stool odor, which is one of the bowel movement problems in elderly people, was alleviated by champignon extract, suggesting an improvement in quality of life associated with bowel movement.

Study Type:
Comparative study

Study Design:
Test subjects were observed with respect to “Stool odor,” “Stool color,” “Stool appearance,” and “Quality of life (satisfaction).” 300 mg jelly sweets containing approximately 55 mL of champignon extract were given to them for a fixed period and the results were compared.

Subjects:
24 elderly people (between the age of 70-80)

Dosage:
300mg jelly sweets containing approximately 55mL of champignon extract (given once after dinner for 30 days).

Results:
Champignon extract supplementation resulted in the following:
Facial expressions survey with 10 stages showed that the satisfaction level increased with time.


Comprehensive “Quality of life (Satisfaction level of life)” also improved due to improvement in the “Bowel movement problem.”

Sufficient effect is shown in a study of a health care facility for elderly people who have a usual “Bowel movement problem,” due to improvement in “Properties of stool” and accompanying “Quality of life (Satisfaction level of life)” 

*On the issue of “Stool odor” in particular, it is important to consider that the stool odor of only 1 person was reported to be “A smell that cannot be tolerated.”

Conclusion:
The results showed that champignon extract alleviated the stool odor which is one of the bowel movement problems at health care facilities for the elderly, and it improved the quality of life (satisfaction) associated with bowel movement.